American History Interviews --


Dr. Francis Adams

Are We Still Racists?

Alienable Rights: The Exclusion of African Americans in a White Man's Land, 1619 to 2000

“Alienable Rights:  The Exclusion of African Americans in a White Man’s Land, 1619 to 2000” is a book in part written by Francis Adams, an independent scholar living in Los Angeles, California.  The book posits that the drive for equal rights for black people in the United States has never had the support of the majority of America.  Rather, racial progress has been made in brief historic bursts, lead by the committed militant minorities of abolitionists, radical republicans, and civil rights activists.  In this program, we visit with Dr. Francis D. Adams.  I asked him to explain the importance of the trial of James Somerset that took place in England in 1772.

Dr. Francis Adams recommends "Collapse," by Jared Diamond.

Originally Broadcast: January 29, 2005

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Dr. Elizabeth Allen

Changes in Segregation Since 1952

In May 1954, the United States Supreme Court, unanimously declared, ”segregation in public education is a denial of the equal protection of the law.”  This is a two-part discussion about the aftermath of that decision.  Our guest is Dr. Elizabeth Allen, a Professor of Nursing at the University of Michigan.  As a high school student, Dr. Allen was one of the first African-American students to integrate West Virginia high schools in 1957.

Dr. Elizabeth Allen recommends "The Price of Loyalty," by David Suskind with former US Secretary of Treasury Paul O'Neil.

Originally Broadcast: May 4, 2004 & May 18, 2004

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Anthony Arthur

Changing America: Upton Sinclair Style

Radical Innocent: Upton Sinclair

Since I was young I have been intrigued by the work of Upton Sinclair.   I remember, as a boy hearing about Sinclair’s books and efforts to change the world.  A close friend of my family was the writer for Sinclair’s campaign newspaper when he ran for governor of California in 1934 and, although that was long before I was born, the stories rolled during his later visits.  Sinclair is perhaps best know for “The Jungle,” published in 1906 which openly revealed the inhumane conditions of the Chicago stockyards and how the meatpacking industry operated, resulting in the passage of the pure food and drug laws within months after publication of “The Jungle.” "Radical Innocent: Upton Sinclair,” is a biography written by retired professor Anthony Arthur, released in June 2006, 100 years after the publication “The Jungle,” and tells the story of Upton Sinclair’s life and work.  Arthur weaves the strands of Sinclair’s contentious public career and his often-troubled private life, which Sinclair at times willingly revealed, into a compelling personal narrative. Anthony Arthur rates integrity as Sinclair’s greatest strength, and claims his eloquence in writing and speech along with his reputation for selflessness as the basis of a ground swell of support for Sinclair and his ideas.  When I spoke with Anthony Arthur at the end of August 2006 from his home near Los Angeles, California, Professor Arthur began by describing what attracted him to study and write about Upton Sinclair.                     

Anthony Arthur recommends “Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph,” by T.E. Lawrence.

Originally Broadcast: September 6, 2006

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Alan Axelrod

FDR as a Leader

Nothing to Fear, Lessons in Leadership from FDR

Alan Axelrod is a writer who has studied the cultural and business dimensions of America.  “Nothing to Fear, Lessons in Leadership from FDR,” by Axelrod, focuses on FDR’s unique leadership style and what an effective leader is able to do.  We spoke about FDR’s leadership skills in the first part of our discussion and then addressed the leadership style and effectiveness of President George W. Bush.

Alan Axelrod recommends "The Life of PT Barnum," by PT Barnum.

Originally Broadcast: June 3, 2003

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P.T. Barnum & Doug Mishler

The Something of Humbug

PT Barnum, sometimes known as the Prince of Humbug, was born in Connecticut in 1810.  In many ways, he personified the American character that Frenchman Alexis De Tocqueville described in his book, “Democracy in America.”  Barnum delighted in making money and telling the truth, as he saw it.  Some truths were told in the political arena, where he was twice a member of the Connecticut legislature and, in the interim, Mayor of Bridgeport, Connecticut.  Some of his truths were lies when they were told to other people, like the history of some of his circus performers.  Other truths were told in his newspapers.  PT Barnum, ‘PT’ as he liked to be called, was best known as the creator of the ‘Best Show On Earth,’ the Barnum and Bailey Circus.  I spoke with PT Barnum, personified by Doug Missler, in the studios of Radio Curious in July of 1996 when this program was originally broadcast.

P.T. Barnum recommends "My Toils and Struggles," the autobiography of PT Barnum. Doug Mishler recommends "The Culture of Complaint," by Robert Hughes.

Originally Broadcast: July 24, 1996

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Deborah Blum

The Science of Affection

Love at Goon Park: Harry Harlow and the Science of Affection

In an unknown and dilapidated laboratory on the University of Wisconsin campus in the 1950s and 1960s, a brilliant, alcoholic, work-obsessed psychologist conducted research on love, a pursuit that was previously ignored and considered unworthy of scientific study.  “Love at Goon Park: Harry Harlow and the Science of Affection,” written by journalist Deborah Blum, is the story of how Professor Harry Harlow, one of the most important and controversial psychologists of the 20th century, altered our understanding of love.

Deborah Blum recommends "The Life of Pi," by Yan Martel.

Originally Broadcast: July 15, 2003

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Blanche Boyd

Self-Styled Outlaw Lesbians

Terminal Velocity

The concept of memoir versus fiction leads many authors to transform their personal experiences and life to fiction.  Blanche Boyd is a native of South Carolina and a Professor of Literature at Connecticut College.  She is also the author of the book entitled, “Terminal Velocity.”  This is a book about a group of self-styled lesbian outlaws in the 1970s.  We discussed the relationship of memoir and fiction, and how it applies to her work.

Blanche Boyd recommends "Cathedral" & "To the Waterfall," both by Raymond Carver.

Originally Broadcast: August 19, 1997

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Roger Brandt

The Oregon Caves

The Oregon Caves, located about 70 miles northeast of Crescent City, California in the Oregon Caves National Monument, are a place full of interest, mystery, and history. The caves were located in 1874 when Elijah Davidson chased his dog into the what appeared to be a hole in the earth.  The Oregon Caves are very unique possibly due to the fact that it is one of the few cave systems located on tectonically active ground, known as a subduction zone. Their uniqueness may also be due to the fact an old growth Douglas Fir forest grows directly above the caves, or the fact that they were created from what used to be a tropical reef that was pushed about 12 miles below the surface of the earth and then brought back up to its current location, and is still rising. I visited the Oregon Caves in 2006 and knew at once it would be a unique experience. I spoke with Roger Brandt, the manager of visitor services and education of the Oregon Caves in the summer of 2006 about the caves. We began when I asked him about the Oregon Caves and what they represent.

Roger Brandt recommends “Golden Days and Pioneer Ways” by Ruth Phefferle.

Originally Broadcast: February 21, 2007

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Joan Jacobs Brumberg

An Intimate History of American Girls

The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls

Advertising has had a major effect on how we view our bodies and on our individual self-image.  The history of how this advertising has come to affect American girls as they pass through menarche and adolescence is presented in a book called “The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls.”  This book describes the historical roots of acute societal and psychological pressures that girls feel today.  It shows how the female adolescent experience has changed since 1895.  The author, Joan Jacobs Brumberg, is a Professor of History and Women’s Studies at Cornell University in New York.  In this two-part program, I spoke Professor Brumberg in October of 1997 and asked her what drew her to write “The Body Project.”

Joan Jacobs Brumberg recommends “Learning to Bow,” by Bruce Feiler & “The Grass Link,” by May Vinchi.

Originally Broadcast: October 14, 1997 & October 21, 1997

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Peggy Bulger

The Story Corps

The American Folklife Preservation Act of 1976 directed the Library of Congress to gather stories and art of everyday people to reflect the identity of America, which is recognized as the core of family and community life.  The thought is that by linking us to the past we are better able to develop our understanding of the present.   The Story Corps is a current project of the American Folklife justify of the Library of Congress.  Two air stream trailers, retrofitted with state of the art recording equipment, will visit towns and cities throughout the United States for about a year beginning in June 2005, to collect recordings of every day people interviewing each other about their lives.  Anyone will be welcome to visit the Story Corps trailer that may be near where you live, by signing up on line at  Each participant receives a copy of the interview, and may donate a copy to the Library of Congress.  This interview with Dr. Peggy Bulger, the Director of the American Folklife justify at the Library of Congress was recorded in her office at the Library of Congress on May 20, 2005.  She began by reviewing the history of the American Folklife justify and the purpose of Story Corps project.  You can locate the Story Corps on the internet at, and the Library of Congress at and

Peggy Bulger recommends "Ireland, A Novel" by Frank Delaney.

Originally Broadcast: May 31, 2005

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Alston Chase

Who is Ted Kaczynski?

Harvard and the Unabomber: The Education of an American Terrorist

"Harvard and the Unabomber:  The Education of an American Terrorist” is a book by Alston Chase, former Chair of the Philosophy Department at Macalester University in Minnesota.  After studying the life and experiences of Theodore Kaczynski, who came to be known as the Unabomber, Chase characterizes him as product of the post World War II angst.  Our discussion on Kaczynski continued through two parts.

Alston Chase recommends "Pity of War," by Nile Furgeson.

Originally Broadcast: July 1, 2003 & July 8, 2003

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Gary Coy

The Man Driving the Dog Team

There is strong historical and anthropological evidence that dogs came across the Bering land bridge with people migrating from Siberia to Alaska.  These dogs worked hard to maintain their keep; they weren’t pets.  Instead, they chased and ran down polar bears and located seals hiding beneath the Bering ice.  One of the early dog professionals in Alaska was Harry Karstens, who later became the first superintendent of Mount McKinley National Park.  As a young man, he pioneered a dog sled route from Fairbanks to Valdez, and hauled mail to the Katishna mining district.  Now, at Denali National Park in central Alaska, there’s a breeding and training and leadership program for these sled dogs.  I spoke with Gary Coy, the director of this remarkable kennel.  In his office there is a large sign quoting Harry Karstens.  It says: “A man driving a dog team is the biggest dog himself.”  Amid the noise and the chatter of the dog kennels in Denali Park, I asked Gary to explain what that sign means and to tell us a little about this wonderful project.

Gary Coy recommends "A Dog-Puncher on the Yukon," by Arthur Walden.

Originally Broadcast: August 28, 1996

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Dewey Crockett

Living Language Fossil

Tangier Island is a remote community in North America in the middle of the Chesapeake Bay in the Commonwealth of Virginia.  Located twelve miles across the water from Crissfield, Maryland, the closest larger community, Tangier Island for a long time was isolated and insular.  Some have called it a language fossil because many people speak with an accent close to that of Elizabethan England.  Dewey Crockett was born and grew up on the island.  In 1995, when this program was recorded, he was a social studies teacher, a Methodist minister, the Mayor, and the undertaker for Tangier Island.  I spoke with Dewey Crockett about Tangier Island, its history, and some of the issues of the time.

Dewey Crockett recommends "The Parson of the Island," by Adam Wallace.

Originally Broadcast: August 7, 1995

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Don Davis

A Story Teller at Work

Don Davis, a story-teller from Okracoke, North Carolina and joins us in this archive edition first broadcast in July 1993, when Radio Curious was called Government, Politics and Ideas.  In our conversation, we discuss the role of story-telling in our modern technological society, the art and dance of story-telling in person and on tape, and story-telling workshops.

Originally Broadcast: July 19, 1993

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Kenneth C. Davis

Independence, Where Does It Come From?

Don't Know Much About History, Everything you Need to Know About American History But Never Learned

"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. --That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, -- That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security." These words may sound radical today, but in fact come from the Declaration of Independence drafted in 1776. In this edition of Radio Curious, broadcast during Independence Week of 2005 we talk with Kenneth C. Davis, author of "Don't Know Much about History," and review some of the issues of 1776 from our perspective now. This interview was recorded on July 2, 2005 with Kenneth C. Davis from his home in southern Vermont. He began by commenting on the role religion played the declaration of the Independence.

Kenneth C. Davis recommends “Diane Arbus, A Biography” by Patricia Bosworth.

Originally Broadcast: July 5, 2005

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Emily Dickinson & Wendy Norris

Hiding in Her Own House

Emily Dickinson, better known now than she was then, was known well for her phrases which sang out in a multitude of forms, meters and styles.  Her words presented her innermost feelings and thoughts.  A passionate and witty woman, she made a craft and an art of her words and her life.  I met with Emily Dickinson, in the person of actress Wendy Norris, in the parlor of the Dickinson family home, magically carried from Amherst, MA, to the stage of the Willits Community Theater, in Willits, CA, where the belle of Amherst told her story.

Originally Broadcast: December 5, 1997

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Ed Dolnick

The Grand Canyon, 1869

Down the Great Unknown, John Wesley Powell's 1869 Journey of Discovery and Tragedy Through the Grand Canyon

John Wesley Powell, a one-armed civil war veteran and passionate geologist, is a mostly unknown early explorer of the Grand Canyon.  In 1869, he led a group of nine men on a 99 day adventure over 1,000 miles and almost 500 difficult rapids to a the vast chasm of the Grand Canyon.  Edward Dolnick is the author of “Down the Great Unknown, John Wesley Powell’s 1869 Journey of Discovery and Tragedy Through the Grand Canyon.”  Dolnick based his book on the journals that Powell and other members of his crew kept as they made their journey.

Ed Dolnick recommends "Endurance," by Alfred Lansing.

Originally Broadcast: December 18, 2001

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Dr. Stanley Donner

Origins of Public Television

We all know that people listen to radio and watch television.  The difference between radio and television is in the image.  When you listen to radio, your mind creates the image for you.  When you watch television, a ready-made image is flashed before your eyes.  The early days of television were days of great creativity, when the questions of “how” and “what should we do” were present at all levels of production, ownership and programming.  In the early 1950s, a young professor from Stanford University named Stanley Donner was creatively engaged in the development of public television in San Francisco, California.  In the last 50 or so years, Professor Donner has participated in and followed the development of this mind-boggling medium.

Dr. Stanley Donner recommends "The Hedgehog and the Fox: An Essay on Tolstoy's View of History," by Sir Isaiah Berlin.

Originally Broadcast: September 11, 1998

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David Ebershoff

Southern California, 1903 - 1945


David Ebershoff is the author of a novel called “Pasadena,” a story about a fishergirl born in 1903 on a coastal onion farm in northern San Diego County.  Her choices in life echo choices and changes that were made for many people as southern California grew and developed in the following 45 years.

David Ebershoff recommends "Middlesex," by Jeffrey Eugendies.

Originally Broadcast: July 29, 2003

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Daniel Ellsberg

The Pentagon Papers

Few moments in American history have held the tension of the early 1970s.  The nation was fundamentally divided between the jaded counter-culture and Nixon’s ‘silent majority,’ a rupture particularly connected to the still-escalating Vietnam War.  The release to the public of the Pentagon Papers by Daniel Ellsberg in 1971 focused national attention on US foreign policy and on our right as individual citizens to freedom of the press.

Daniel Ellsberg recommends "Our War," by David Harris.

Originally Broadcast: March 19, 1997

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Mark Feeney

Nixon at the Movies

Nixon at the Movies, A Book About Belief

Richard Nixon, and the movies he watched while he was president...  On his third night in office, January 22, 1969 Nixon saw The Shoes of the Fisherman in the White House movie theater.  From then until August 1973, when he resigned the presidency Nixon watched over 500 movies in the White House, at Camp David, and other places he frequented.  This is an average of 2½ movies per week during his presidency.  The book, Nixon at the Movies, A Book About Belief, by Boston Globe journalist Mark Feeney examines the role movies played in forming Nixon’s character and career, and the role Nixon played in the development of American film.  Ronald Reagan may have been the first movie star president, but Feeney argues that Nixon was the first true cinematic president.   In this program, recorded in January 2005, Mark Feeney begins by commenting on the effect that the 500 plus movies that Nixon watched had on him and his presidency.

Mark Feeney recommends "The Whole Equation," by David Thompson.

Originally Broadcast: February 22, 2005

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Tovah Feldshuh

Golda's Balcony, The Story of Golda Meir

Golda's Balcony

William Gibson’s new play “Golda’s Balcony” is the story of Golda Meir, her life, her love, her work and it’s a significant part of the story of Israel.  This one-woman play is currently being performed by Tovah Feldshuh at the ACT Theatre in San Francisco, California until August 13.  Tovah Feldshuh plays the roles of Golda Meir and those of 38 other people who influenced Golda Meir’s life and her work and she holds the record for the longest running one-woman play on Broadway.  The opening performance of Golda’s Balcony in San Francisco created a palpable feeling of appreciation in the theater that evening and I highly recommend seeing it.  When Tovah Feldshuh and I spoke the next day about her work and Golda Meir, we began when I asked her how the audience affects what she is able to on stage.  For more information look at and

Tovah Feldshuh recommends "Blink," by Malcolm Gladwell.

Originally Broadcast: August 2, 2005

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Mel Fiske

Radical Reporter

Radical: A Memoir of Wars, Communists & Work

Political philosophy and one’s education, both formal and informal, can lead a person on unimagined paths that are woven into stories in that person’s life.  The book, “Radical: A Memoir of Wars, Communists & Work,” was written by Mel Fiske, our guest in this edition of Radio Curious.  Mel was radicalized after a 15,000 mile journey across America during the Depression.  That trip opened his eyes to a life he never knew existed growing up in New York City.

Mel Fiske recommends “Bayou Farewell,” by Mike Tidwell.

Originally Broadcast: January 17, 2006

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Benjamin Franklin

Ralph Archbold

Visit with Benjamin Franklin

This conversation with Benjamin Franklin, as portrayed by Ralph Archibald who shares a birthday with Benjamin Franklin, was recorded in the summer of 1994 in two parts.  The first was recorded on a walk to where Benjamin Franklin lived and worked, and the second was recorded at the City Tavern, both Philadelphia landmarks in Franklin’s life and now.  Benjamin Franklin is, perhaps, the most noteworthy and animated of the Founding Fathers.  His contributions to science, common sense, and, most importantly, this nation of ours set him apart from most other figures in American history.

Originally Broadcast: July 18, 1994 and July 25, 1994

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Estelle Freedman

The History of Feminism

No Turning Back—The History of Feminism and the Future of Women

Estelle B. Freedman, a Professor of History at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, specializing in feminism, is the author of “No Turning Back—The History of Feminism and the Future of Women.”   She addresses many of the issues in her book in this edition of Radio Curious.

Estelle Freedman recommends "The Blind Assassin," by Margaret Atwood & "The Vagina Monologues," by Eve Ensler.

Originally Broadcast: April 2, 2002

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Judith Freeman

A Deadly Trip West in 1857

Red Water

On September 11, 1857, a group of 120 emigrants en route to California was attacked and slaughtered by Mormon settlers and their Indian allies.  Twenty years later, John D. Lee, a Mormon and a participant in the massacre, was executed by a firing squad at the same spot and thus entered history as the scapegoat for all those responsible for what came to be known as the Mountain Meadow Massacre in southern Utah.  “Red Water,” by Judith Freeman, published in January 2002, is the story of the life of John D. Lee, as told by three of his nineteen wives.  Judith Freeman describes early Mormon belief, the sense of persecution felt by the Mormons, and the sisterhood of his wives in marriage.

Judith Freeman recommends "Why Did I Ever," by Mary Robinson.

Originally Broadcast: March 5, 2002

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Leonard Garment

Crazy Rhythm: My Journey from Brooklyn, Jazz, and Wall Street to Nixon’s White House, Watergate, and Beyond…,

Some people’s memories of President Richard Nixon are negative due to his role in escalating the Vietnam War, the student demonstrations at Kent State University, and Nixon’s ultimate downfall in Watergate.  But who was the man?  And how could another individual get close to him?  “Crazy Rhythm: My Journey from Brooklyn, Jazz, and Wall Street to Nixon’s White House, Watergate, and Beyond…,” is a story written by a complex person very close to Richard Nixon.  Attorney Leonard Garment was born to immigrant Jewish parents in New York in 1924.  Playing music, especially saxophone jazz, he grew up in Brooklyn.  As a good student and, with what he describes, “an ambition to run things,” Garment finished law school in his early twenties and began working for a major Wall Street law firm.  Even though at times he characterized himself as a liberal Democrat, Garment became a close friend and law partner with Richard Nixon and later became the attorney for, and the counsel to, President Richard Nixon, during the time Nixon was embroiled in the throws of Watergate.  This interview was originally broadcast in May of 1997.

Leonard Garment recommends “American Pastoral,” by Philip Roth.

Originally Broadcast: May 16, 1997

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Wavy Gravy

You've Got to be Kidding …

Radio Curious is a program of interviews with those we wonder about.  I’ve often wondered about Woodstock of 1969.  I’ve often wondered how it got going and what its ramifications were.  Why does the recollection make some people puke?  So, I thought I’d ask Wavy Gravy, a man with insight on the subject far beyond most other people.  We discussed Woodstock and other stories in July of 2000.

Wavy Gravy recommends "The Laughing Sutra," Mark Salzman & "Angela's Ashes," by Frank McCourt.

Originally Broadcast: July 25, 2000

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Horace Greeley & David Fenimore

Go West, Young Man, Go West!

Newspapers were the primary means of mass communication in 19th Century America.  They not only told the news, but they pervaded social and political ideas of the times.  Horace Greeley was one of the most colorful and outspoken newspapermen of his day.  “Read and judge yourself,” was a slogan of his, almost as well known in his lifetime as his slogan, “Go west, young man, go west,” is known now.  I spoke with Horace Greeley through the personage of Chautauqua scholar David Fenimore during the 1996 Democracy in America Chautauqua series that visited Ukiah, CA.

Horace Greeley recommends "Democracy in America," by Alexis de Tocqueville. David Fenimore recommends "Breaking News: How the Media Undermine American Democracy," by James Fallows & "Who Will Tell the People?" by William Greider.

Originally Broadcast: February 26, 1997

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Paul R. Griffin

Sowing the Seeds of Racism

Seeds of Racism in the Soul of America

Racism, as a part of the American religious culture, can be traced to the religious concepts of some of the earliest European settlers in North America.  Professor Paul R. Griffin explores these roots in his book, “Seeds of Racism in the Soul of America,” linking the concepts in the Puritan belief system to long lasting racist effects.  He argues that racism is itself a religion in the United States and is closely related to America Christianity.  He claims that efforts to erase racism have failed because they have concentrated on its visible manifestations rather than its ideological character.

Paul R. Griffin recommends "The Rage of the Privileged Class," by Ellis Cose.

Originally Broadcast: March 1, 2001

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Dr. Dolores Hayden

From City to Suburb

Building Suburbia: Green Fields and Urban Growth, 1820 to 2000

The development and the expansion of homes, where they are and why they came to be in the places they are, are issues of particular importance to Dolores Hayden, Professor of Architecture and Urbanism and American Studies at Yale University.  Her book, “Building Suburbia: Green Fields and Urban Growth, 1820 to 2000,” explores the design and development of the suburbs and suburbia’s relevance in American history.

Dr. Dolores Hayden recommends "A Consumer's Republic," by Liz Cohen.

Originally Broadcast: November 21, 2003

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Jack Hines

One Corner of Montana

Sweet Grass County: Historic Crossroad

Montana, the Big Sky state, is a place of significant historical interest in the history of North America and the United States.  Sweet Grass County, located in south central Montana, is an area that since pre-historic times has been a justify of trade and historic crossroads of travel.  Jack Hines worked as an artist in New York for 30 years until 1972 when he moved to Sweet Grass County, Montana.  There he began the ”Historic Crossroad” painting and writing project, as a declaration of his love for his adopted home in the exquisite Yellowstone Valley of Montana.  His paintings depict the life in that area beginning in the ice-age, through the times of the Indians, Lewis and Clark, the Fur trade and homesteading and listened to Jack reading from his book, "Sweet Grass County, Historic Crossroad," in Big Timber, Montana.

Jack Hines recommends "Glow Smile, A Biography" & "What Went Wrong," both by Bernard Louis.

Originally Broadcast: June 2, 2003

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Grace Carpenter Hudson & Laura Ferri

The Painter Lady

Grace Carpenter Hudson was known as the painter-lady in her hometown of Ukiah, CA.  She started her career as a painter when she was a teenager in the 1870s.  By the time of her death in 1937, she had produced over 600 canvas paintings and numerous other works.  Her skills focused almost exclusively on the lives and cultures of the Pomo Indians who lived in Mendocino County.  Her husband, Dr. John Hudson, assisted her by making the study of native culture his life’s work, overshadowing his profession as a physician.  Grace Carpenter Hudson was a shrewd businesswoman, as well as an artist of increasing renown.  Most of the family income came from the sale of her artwork.  I spoke with Grace Carpenter Hudson in the person of actress Laura Ferri at the Grace Carpenter Hudson museum in Ukiah, CA, during an exhibition of her work.

Grace Carpenter Hudson recommends "The Age of Innocence," by Edith Morton. Laura Ferri recommends "Stones from the River," by Ursula Hegi.

Originally Broadcast: March 5, 1997

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Thomas Jefferson & C. Jenkinson

The Author of the Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States of America, stands as one of the lead political theorists of American history.  His ward republican theory required an agrarian population, a government originating in the individual household, and a consistently questioning and rebellious public.  My guest in this edition of Radio Curious is Mr. Jefferson, personified by Clay Jenkinson.  We discussed what has gone wrong in the US since Mr. Jefferson was President and addressed some of his concepts of what are necessary for a democracy.

Thomas Jefferson recommends "The History of the Peloponnesian War," by Thuclydides. C. Jenkinson recommends "In the Absence of the Sacred," by Jerry Mander.

Originally Broadcast: May 21, 1994

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Randall Kennedy

Can You Say This Word?

Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word

Few words in the English language have caused so much pain, hurt and emotion as the N-word.  Randall Kennedy, a professor of Law at Harvard University, has written a book to chronicle the history of this word and to diffuse and neutralize it.  His book is sub-titled, “The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word.”

Randall Kennedy recommends "The Negro in the American Revolution," by Benjamin Quarles.

Originally Broadcast: March 19, 2002

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Randall Kennedy

Black and White

Interracial Intimacies: Sex, Marriage, Identity, and Adoption

“Interracial Intimacies: Sex, Marriage, Identity, and Adoption,” is a book written by Randall Kennedy, a Harvard University Law School Professor.  He takes an in-depth look at the issue of black and white relationships set against the ever-changing social mores and laws of this country.

Randall Kennedy recommends "The Biography of Walter White," by Robert Janken.

Originally Broadcast: April 15, 2003

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Dr. David Kiersey

What is my Personality?

Presidential Temperaments & Please Understand Me

My guest in this program was Dr. David Kiersey, the author of a book called “Presidential Temperament.”  Dr. Kiersey took the Meyers-Briggs Temperament inventories and developed what has come to be known as the Kiersey Temperament Sorter.  In so doing, he has established and identified several different types of character and temperament of people.  In his book, “Please Understand Me,” the reader may use the Kiersey Temperament Sorter to get an idea of his or her personality and temperament traits.  With his history and experience, Kiersey has examined the people who have become a President of the US and set out his analysis in “Presidential Temperaments.”  In this program, originally broadcast in November of 1993 when Radio Curious was called Government, Politics and Ideas, we’ll be talking about the book and some of the temperaments of the various Presidents.

Dr. David Kiersey recommends "Killer Angels," by Michael Shaara & The Hornblower Series, by Horatio Hormblower.

Originally Broadcast: November 19, 1993

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Niilo Koponen, Ph.D.

North To Alaska

People who crave space, freedom, adventure, and opportunities have long been attracted to Alaska.  In June of 1996 I spoke with Niilo Kopanan, the son of Finnish immigrants who grew up in New York City and moved to a mountain ridge near Fairbanks, Alaska in 1952.  At that time, land there was still open for homesteading.  He located his 160 acres and filed a homestead on the ridge where he still lives.  After several years there, in the mid 1950s, he returned to the lower 48 states to earn a Ph.D.  Yet the magnet of Alaska pulled him back where he became a university professor and a member of the Alaska legislature, and he’s been there ever since.

Niilo Koponen, Ph.D. recommends “The life story of Elizabeth Morgan” by Ernest Morgan.

Originally Broadcast: June 18, 1996

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Dr. Gerda Lerner

The Foremother of Women's History

Fireweed: A Political Autobiography

The history of women has existed as long as humans have, but it was not until the last half of the 20th Century that women’s history received academic attention.  Professor Gerda Lerner is a pioneer of the study of women’s history and a founder of the movement to study and record the history of women.  She has placed particular emphasis on the differences among women due to class, race and sexual orientation.

Originally Broadcast: October 1, 2002

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Abraham Lincoln & James Getty

The 16th President

In 1995, James A. Getty, who appears in public as Abraham Lincoln, visited Ukiah, California and joined us in the studios of Radio Curious.  In talking with President Lincoln about his life, the events of his time and about his presidency, the conversation focused upon the economics of the mid-19th century.  I asked Mr. Lincoln to give us his opinion about the effect that Eli Whitney’s cotton gin had on the spread of slavery.

Abraham Lincoln and James Getty recommend "Malice Toward None," by Steven Oats.

Originally Broadcast: March 7, 1996

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Paul M. Lisnik

Juries: Fair or Corruptible

The Hidden Jury, and Other Tactics Lawyers Use to Win

What happens when a guilty person is acquitted of crime?  Or worse, when an innocent person is convicted of a crime?  This injustice can sometimes be prevented with the help of jury consultants, people who assist lawyers in picking juries in all types of trials, not just criminal trials. Paul Lisnik, the author of “The Hidden Jury and Other Tactics Lawyers Use to Win” is an attorney, jury consultant and journalist, who advised and assisted in the O.J. Simpson other trials.  He debunks the myth that juries are fair and impartial; that if someone commits a crime, they get convicted; that only guilty people are ultimately put to death; and that only the wealthy or famous can afford a trial consultant.  In this interview recorded in March 2005 Paul Lisnik begin with his interpretation of the jury system.

  Paul M. Lisnik recommends “Bush World, Enter At Your Own Risk” by Marueen Doud.

Originally Broadcast: June 28, 2005

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George Mann & Julius Margolin

Union Folk Songs

Julius Margolin and George Mann, two men separated in age by almost 46 years, are what might be called traveling troubadours.  They carry the message of working people in song and spirit, bringing a wealth of union history wherever they go.

George Mann recommends "Bury my Heart at Wounded Knee," by Dee Brown. Julain Margolin recommends books authored by Michael Moore.

Originally Broadcast: May 6, 2003

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Joseph Marshall III

The End of a Nation: the Lakota Tribe

The Day the World Ended at Little Bighorn; a Lakota History

Independence unfortunately comes and goes, frequently under the guise of independence for other people.  And independence is today’s topic.  In this two-part Radio Curious interview, recorded on June 29, and broadcasted on July 4 and July 11, 2007, we visit the concept of independence as seen from the Lakota point of view.  The Lakota nation was made up of the largest known group of North American native people and encompassed a large portion of the northern plains in what is now Montana, Wyoming, North and South Dakota.  Our guest is Joseph M. Marshall, III, author if “The Day The World Ended at Little Bighorn, a Lakota History.” Growing up on the Rosebud Sioux Indian Reservation, where his first language was Lakota, Marshall is an historian, storyteller and author whose work shares the history of his people.  I spoke with Joseph Marshall when he visited San Francisco, California.  We began our discussion when I asked him to describe what turned out to be the largest and last gathering of the Lakota people when they met at Little Bighorn in July of 1876.

Joseph Marshall III recommends "The World We Used to Live in: Remembering the Powers of the Medicine Men," by Vine Deloria.

Originally Broadcast: July 4, 2007 and July 11, 2007

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Scott McCloud

The Invisible Art

Understanding Comics, A Rather Colorful Display: The Invisible Art

Comics have come to hold quite an important place in contemporary society.  Satire, particularly political commentary, is perhaps closest to its essence when expressed in the visual comic.  However, it also can be argued that comics have played a far greater role in the history of humanity, tracing back to all images depicting a sequential number of actions.  My guest in this program is Scott McCloud, author of “Understanding Comics, A Rather Colorful Display: The Invisible Art,” a book about the history of comics.

Scott McCloud recommends "Jar of Fools," by Jason Lutes.

Originally Broadcast: August 27, 1994

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Patrick McGrath

Moving to America in 1774

Martha Peake

Imagine leaving home and travelling by yourself to a new land where you don’t know the customs or the politics, on a trip that will take weeks to complete in what would now be considered a very small ship, on turbulent waters.  Imagine making this voyage, never to return to your homeland, when you are 15 years old, and pregnant.  Soon after you arrive a war begins that changes the face of the country and set a new type of government in motion.  Imagine researching this story and then writing it.  That is the work of Patrick McGrath, the author of “Martha Peake,” a book about a plucky young woman who came to American in 1774.  I spoke with Patrick McGrath by phone in 2001 to talk about “Martha Peake,” how he researched and prepared to write it, and what British students are taught about the American Revolution.

Patrick McGrath recommends “The First American,” by H.W. Brown.

Originally Broadcast: January 16, 2001

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Edmund Morris

Who was Ronald Reagan?  One Opinion

Dutch, A Memoir of Ronald Reagan

A President of the United States is frequently a biographer’s subject who usually acts with second-hand information and without explicit authority from the President, himself.  In 1985, Edmund Morris, who was born in Kenya and educated in South Africa, was authorized and appointed by Ronald Reagan to be the official biographer for the 40th President of the United States.  Morris, who characterizes Reagan as a man difficult to truly know, had unprecedented access to President Reagan both in and out of the White House.  He met regularly with Reagan and reviewed Reagan’s daily handwritten White House journal as well as Reagan’s earlier writings.  Morris’ 1999 book, entitled “Dutch, A Memoir of Ronald Reagan,” is narrated by a fictional character, quite uncommon in most biographical interpretations, and tells the story of President Reagan.

Edmund Morris recommends "Guard of Honor" by James Gould Cozzens.

Originally Broadcast: November 30, 1999

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 Mother Jones & Ronnie Gilbert

The Most Dangerous Woman in America

Mary Harris Jones, Mother Jones, was born in 1830.  She lived a quiet, non-public life until she was approximately 47 years old and then, for almost the next fifty years, she was a fiery union organizer, strike leader, and fighter for safe and humane working conditions, the eight hour day, and child labor laws.  Around the turn of the century, she was called the most dangerous woman in America.  Her legacy has lived on in the form of a magazine that bears the name, Mother Jones; and in the form of a one-woman play about her life, produced, acted and written by singer and songwriter Ronnie Gilbert.

 Mother Jones recommends any books by Leo Tolstoy. Ronnie Gilbert recommends "Hawaii," by James Mechiner.

Originally Broadcast: March 12, 1997

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Clarina Nichols portrayed by

Eickhoff Diane

The Revolutionary Heart of Clarina Nichols

Revolutionary Heart, The Life of Clarina Nichols and the Pioneering Crusade for Women's Rights

The life of Clarina Nichols and her work in the early women's rights movement of the United States has been greatly overlooked.  As one of the country’s first female newspaper editors and stump speakers, Clarina Nichols spoke out for temperence, abolition and women's rights at a time when doing so could get a woman killed.  Unlike other activists, she personally experienced some of the cruelest sufferings that a married woman of her day could know.  In her pursuit for justice she traveled westward facing all of the challenges of being a single mother and a women's rights activist of her day with good humor and resourcefullness.  Clarina Nichols was portrayed by Diane Eickhoff in this chautauquan style interveiw and we began when I asked Clarina about her childhood.

Clarina Nichols recommends "The Sexes Throughout Nature (Pioneers of the woman's movement)," by Antoinette Louisa Brown Blackwell.

Originally Broadcast: January 13, 2007

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Clarina Nichols portrayed by

Diane Eickhoff

The Revolutionary Heart of Clarina Nichols

Revolutionary Heart, The Life of Clarina Nichols and the Pioneering Crusade for Women's Rights

The life of Clarina Nichols and her work in the early women's rights movement of the United States has been greatly overlooked.  As one of the country’s first female newspaper editors and stump speakers, Clarina Nichols spoke out for temperence, abolition and women's rights at a time when doing so could get a woman killed.  Unlike other activists, she personally experienced some of the cruelest sufferings that a married woman of her day could know.  In her pursuit for justice she traveled westward facing all of the challenges of being a single mother and a women's rights activist of her day with good humor and resourcefullness.  Clarina Nichols was portrayed by Diane Eickhoff in this chautauquan style interveiw and we began when I asked Clarina about her childhood.

Clarina Nichols recommends "The Sexes Throughout Nature (Pioneers of the woman's movement)," by Antoinette Louisa Brown Blackwell.

Originally Broadcast: January 13, 2007

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Elizabeth Stanton & Frederick Douglass

Sally Wagner & Charles Pace

A Visit with Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Frederick Douglass

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Frederick Douglass were good friends from the mid 19th century to the late 19th century, and were active leaders in the fight for the rights of women and blacks throughout their lives.  From time to time they got together to visit and talk about America, as they knew it. In this archive edition of Radio Curious recorded in May 1998, I met with Chautauqua scholars Sally Roach Wagner and Charles Pace who portrayed Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Frederick Douglass and asked them each to tell us what it was like to be an American during their life time.

Frederick Douglass and Elizabeth Stanton recommend “The Columbian Orator: Containing a variety of original and selected pieces together with rules, which are calculated to improve youth and others, in the ornamental and useful art of eloquence,” by Caleb Bingham and “The Woman’s Bible” edited by Eliz. Cady Stanton.

Originally Broadcast: July 3, 1996

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John Muir & Lee Stetson

An Early American Conservationist

The Wild Muir

One of the greatest early conservationists of America was a Scottish immigrant named John Muir who, as a young boy, went first to Wisconsin and then later, as a young man in the 1860s, moved onward to California.  A friend of President Theodore Roosevelt, he successfully sought to preserve the spectacular Yosemite Valley and the Sierra Nevada range; it was joy in his lifetime. Yet the loss of the equally spectacular Hetch Hetch Valley to a dam to provide water for San Francisco was his greatest sorrow.  John Muir founded the Sierra Club and he has been credited with founding the National Park System in the United States.  In this program I spoke with John Muir in the person of Lee Stetson.

John Muir recommends "Sixty Miles from Contentment," by M.H. Dunlop.

Originally Broadcast: October 20, 1995

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Maria Stewart

Sandra Kamusukiri

A Visit With a Free Black Women - Boston 1840

Maria W. Stewart, as characterized by professor and scholar Sandra Kamusakiri, was a free black woman who lived in Boston, MA, from the 1820s to the early 1840s.  She was the first American born woman to lecture in public on political themes and likely the first African-American to speak out in defense of women’s rights.  A forerunner to Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth, she was intensely religious and regarded as outspoken and controversial during her time. For more than a century, Maria W. Stewart’s life contributions remained obscured, illustrating the double pressures of racism and sexism on the lives African-American women.  I met with Mariah W. Stewart in the person of Professor Sandra Kamusukiri during the 1996 Democracy in America Chautauqua, held in Ukiah, California.

Maria Stewart recommends "The Fair Sketches of Women," by John Adams and "The Bible."

Originally Broadcast: November 27, 1996

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Dr. Victoria Patterson

Native American Life, Before and After Europeans

Cultures that have no written language pass on their histories through oral traditions.  The stories are the way that social values and traditions are taught by one generation to the next.  Animals often play a significant character role in these stories.  In the Native American traditions of the northwest part of California, the coyote is a very popular character.  Dr. Victoria Patterson, an anthropologist based in Ukiah, California, has worked with native peoples for over 30 years.  She knows these stories, and she sees them as windows, allowing us to imagine how original native peoples of northern California thought and lived.  I met with Dr. Victoria Patterson and asked her about the significance of the story where the coyote jumped off into the sky.  Our discussion lead to a two-part program, originally broadcast in February of 1999.

Dr, Victoria Patterson recommends "Deep Valley," by Bernard W. Aginsky and "Under the Tuscan Sun," by Frances Mayes.

Originally Broadcast: February 16, 1999 and February 26, 1999

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Pio Pico & Roberto Garza

Meet the Last Mexican Governor of California

In this program, we are going to go back into California history about 150 years, and visit with the last Mexican governor of California, Pio Pico.  Pio Pico was born at the San Gabriel Mission in 1801, of Spanish, Italian, Indian and African ancestry.  Both as a politician and as an entrepreneur, he espoused the views of many native-born Californarios over distant seats of government.  As the last Mexican governor of California, he presided over the secularization of the missions, and turned over their vast land holdings to private hands.  Although he fled California during the American takeover, Pio Pico returned to build the first major hotel in Los Angeles.  Later, he served on the Los Angeles City Council.  I met with Pio Pico in the person of Roberto Garza in February of 1998.

Pio Pico recommends "Pio Pico, A Historical Narrative," by Pio Pico. Roberto Graza recommends "Pio Pico Miscellany," by Martin Cole & "Decline of the Californios," by Leonard Pitt.

Originally Broadcast: February 27, 1998

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Charles Reich

A Non-Marxist View of Material Capitalism

The Greening of America & Opposing the System

The market economy often seems to have many inherent problems.  Indeed, a Marxist historical view presupposes that the fundamental contradictions of capitalism will inevitably lead to socialism.  Far from this extreme, Charles Reich, author of “The Greening of America” and, more recently, “Opposing the System,” believes that individuals must be nonetheless confronted with these contradictions and the human conditions created by material capitalism.

Charles Reich recommends "The Poetry of Colleridge," by Charles R. Woodring.

Originally Broadcast: November 4, 1996

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Domingo Sarmiento & Daniel Lewis

An Argentine President

Domingo Sarmiento, a teacher and later President of the Republic of Argentina, spent several years traveling in Europe and the United States in the mid-19th Century.  He spent six weeks in the US in the fall of 1847 and later published his account of this visit, selectively interpreting what he saw and experienced to conform to his ideas.  In this archive edition of Radio Curious, I visit with Domingo Sarmiento in the person of Professor Daniel Lewis, a scholar-presenter in the 1996 Democracy in America Chautauqua.  I met with Domingo Sarmiento during a break in the Chautauqua programming in Ukiah, California, and asked him what he saw the future of the American Union to be, from his perspective in 1843.

Domingo Sarmiento recommends any book by James Fenimore Cooper. Daniel Lewis recommends "The Invention of Argentina," by Nicolas Shumway.

Originally Broadcast: July 27, 1996

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Dame Shirley & Kate Magruder

Women and the Gold Rush

When word that California had gold in its creeks and streams reached the United States of America in 1848, fortune seekers from all over the world soon began to arrive in California by boat, covered wagon, and on foot. Some people made their fortunes by selling provisions or services and very few actually found enough gold to take home.  Louise Smith Clapp of Amherst, Massachusetts, using the name of Dame Shirley, wrote detailed and vivid descriptions of the life and ways of the gold seekers and of mid 19th century California.  In this two-part program, we will talk to Dame Shirley in the person of Kate Magruder, a Chautauqua performer and participant with the California Council for the Humanities Sesquicentennial Project, Rediscovering California at 150.

Dame Shirley recommends The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. Kate Magruder recommends "Days of Gold," by Malcolm Rhorbough & "The Shirley Letters," by Dame Shirley.

Originally Broadcast: March 16, 1999 & March 23, 1999

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Orin Starn

Who was Ishi?

Ishi's Brain: In Search of the Last ‘Wild’ Indian

In 1911, Ishi, the last Stone Age Indian, walked into the community of Oroville, CA, opening an anthropologic window into the lives of native Californians.  In this edition of Radio Curious, we visit with Orin Starn, an anthropologist at Duke University in North Carolina and the author of “Ishi’s Brain: In Search of the Last ‘Wild’ Indian.”

Orin Starn recommends "When the Spirit Catches You, You Fall Down," by Ann Fadiman.

Originally Broadcast: March 9, 2004

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John Sutter

David Fenimore

A Visit With John Sutter

John Sutter was an émigré from Switzerland who came to California to establish his New Helvicia in the land of opportunity, located in what is now close to Sacramento, California.  A man with vision and organization, and a liking to drink, Sutter built an economically thriving Anglo-American settlement outpost in what was then Mexican California.  The economy was based on livestock and lumber and used forced Native American labor.  The discovery of gold in 1849 at a mill owned by Sutter started the gold rush that ultimately led to his undoing, ruining him financially as the mass of humanity tramped through the lands he then claimed to own, on their rush to the gold fields.  John Sutter was portrayed by historian David Fennimore and was part of “Rediscovering California at 150” the California sesquicentennial initiative produced by the California Council for the Humanities.

John Sutter recommends “Ivanhoe,” by Sir Walter Scott and “Report Concerning North America,” by Godfried Duden.

Originally Broadcast: February 20, 1998

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Wesley Swearingen

Illegal FBI Break-Ins, Told By a Former Agent

FBI Secrets: An Agent's Expose

Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation have a history of illegal break-ins to homes and offices and conducting wiretaps without a search warrant.  In the years when J. Edgar Hoover was the Director of the FBI, these warrantless break-ins came to be known as “black-bag jobs”.   This archive edition of Radio Curious is a December 1995 interview with Wesley Swearingen a former FBI agent who in 1995 wrote a book called FBI Secrets: An Agent’s Expose. His book describes some of the “black-bag” warrantless searches in which he was involved, and his opinion of those activities.  He ends his book by saying that the Hoover era will continue to haunt the FBI because Hoover knowingly undermined the United States Constitution. When I spoke with Wesley Swearingen I asked him what he meant by that.

Wesley Swearingen recommends "Official and Confidential: The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover," by Anthony Summers.

Originally Broadcast: December 20, 1995

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Alexis de Tocqueville

Dick Johnson

A Visit With Alexis de Tocqueville

Democracy in America

In 1831, a 25 year-old Frenchman, Alexis de Tocqueville, trained as a lawyer, and preoccupied with democracy, came to the US to study this new political scheme.  Alexis de Tocqueville and his traveling companion, Gustave de Beaumont, arrived at Newport, RI, in an America comprised, then, of 23 states and 13 million people.  They stayed for nine months, and then returned to France at which time de Tocqueville began his epic poem entitled “Democracy in America.”  At a time then when slavery was an economic base in the South, and abolitionism was beginning to thrive in the North, America had three frontiers: geography, industry, and democracy.  In this program of Radio Curious, we’ll be talking with Alexis De Tocqueville, through the person of Chautauqua scholar, Dick Johnson.

Alexis de Tocqueville recommends “Democracy in America,” by Alexis de Tocqueville.

Originally Broadcast: July 17, 1996

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David Von Drehle

The Fire That Changed America

Triangle, the Fire That Changed America

Until September 11, 2001, The Triangle Shirtwaste Fire on March 25, 1911 was the deadliest workplace disaster in the history of New York City.  David Von Drehle, a political writer for the Washington Post, is the author of “Triangle, the Fire That Changed America,” a detailed examination of how one event changed the course of the 20th century politics and labor relations.

David Von Drehle recommends "Plunkitt of Tammany Hall," by William Riordan.

Originally Broadcast: September 9, 2003

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Michael Waldman

The President Speaks

My Fellow Americans, The Most Important Speeches of America’s Presidents from George Washington to George W. Bush

Michael Waldman, an expert on the Presidency, wrote or edited nearly 2000 speeches, including several of President Clinton’s State of the Union speeches.  He is also the editor of “My Fellow Americans, The Most Important Speeches of America’s Presidents from George Washington to George W. Bush.”

Michael Waldman recommends "Burr," by Gore Vidal.

Originally Broadcast: January 20, 2004

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Andrew Weiss

Ellis Island: Who Arrived There, Why and What Was it Like

Between 1892 and 1956 about 12 million people immigrated to the United States through Ellis Island, in the harbor of New York City.  Who were these immigrants? Where did they come from?  What was the experience of getting to Ellis Island and what happened to them once they arrived?  In this archive edition of Radio Curious, we visited with Andrew Weiss, who I met in 1992 when he was a tour guide at Ellis Island, working for the City of New York.  I spoke with Andrew Weiss in November of 1992, when he was a doctoral candidate at Columbia University and a teacher at Barnard College in New York City.  I asked him to begin by telling us about the history of Ellis Island.

Originally Broadcast: November 23, 1992

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Corporal Gabriel West & Sgt. Hugh Griffin

The First English Settlement in the New World

Please join me as we go back in history to the year 1584, to the East Coast of what is now the United States.  In that year, Queen Elizabeth the First, then the Queen of England, sent Sir Walter Raleigh in command of three seafaring expeditions to what they called the New World.  These expeditions landed on the central coast of what is now North Carolina and became the first English settlements in North America.  They called the region Virginia, in honor of Elizabeth the First, the maiden Queen of England.  The Cultural Resources Division of the North Carolina Division of History has recreated a model of the seafarers' ship, called Elizabeth the Second, which carried these small groups of soldiers across the ocean in 1585.  In-character actors, talking as real people living in 1585, are on site near Roanoke, North Carolina.  I first spoke with a man who called himself Sgt. Hugh Griffin.  He claimed to be in charge of the small outpost, one of several they established on their arrival a few days before.

Originally Broadcast: July 1, 1995

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Bill Zacha

Developing an Artist Colony in the Village of Mendocino, California

Bill Zacha, the leading force behind the creation of the Mendocino Art justify was a person with vision and moxie and one who made a dream come true.  In August 1957, Bill Zacha, was a young married teacher and lived near San Francisco.  On a short trip to the village of Mendocino with his wife Jenny and friends, Bill not only saw the beauty of the Mendocino coast, but the opportunity to act swiftly to purchase what is now the Mendocino Art justify and keep that property out of the hands of those who envisioned creating a trailer park there.  Since its inception, the Mendocino Arts justify has featured artists, teachers, and students from all over the world.  Bill Zacha, who was often called Mr. Mendocino, died on March 18th 1998.

Bill Zacha recommends "Love in the Time of Cholera," by Gabriel Garcia Marquez.

Originally Broadcast: March 27, 1998

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